宾语从句

编辑 卡提诺官网锁定
宾语从句是名词性从句的一种。在主从复合句中充当宾语,位于及物动词介词复合谓语之后的从句称为宾语从句。宾语从句分为三类:动词的宾语从句,卡提诺官网介词的宾语从句和形容词的宾语从句。[1]
中文名
宾语从句
外文名
Object clause
位 置
句子中
分 类
从句(小类型共三类)

宾语从句意义 编辑

语法是语言的组织规律,任何人在使用语言时,不管他是否学过语法,都须合乎语法。另外,总结语法本身的规律也能加深我们对语言的理解,让我们能够真正熟练地运用语言。(宾语:指一个动作(动词)的接受者,常置于动词之后,也有双宾语结构例句:he gave me a book,类似拥有me和book两个宾语的句子叫双宾语从句),在复合句中,由一个句子充当宾语,这个句子就叫做宾语从句。

用法 编辑

宾语从句

宾语从句的连接词:that
结构:主语+谓语+宾语(陈述语序)
注意:
  1. 引导词为that ;
  2. 语序为v.+主语+谓语+由if、whether引导宾语从句;
  3. 主句为现在时 从句为任意时态。
  1. 连接宾语从句的从属连词主要有that,if,whether,和疑问词(what, how, where, when ...)。
    that引导表示陈述句的宾语从句,
    if和whether,whether...or not引导表示“是否”的一般疑问句的宾语从句。
  2. 关联代词
    连接代词主要有who,whom,whose,what,whoever,whomever,whosever,whatever,whichever等。
    连接代词一般指疑问,但what,whatever除了指疑问外,也可以指陈述。
  3. 关联副词
    连接副词主要有when,where,why,how,whenever,wherever,however等。
    例句:
    He didn’t tell me when we should meet again.
    他没有告诉我什么时候我们能再见面。
    注:宾语从句通常跟在名词或代词后面。

动宾从句

  1. 大多数及物动词都可以带宾语从句。
  2. 部分“动词+副词”结构也可以带宾语从句。
  3. 动词短语也可以带宾语从句,常见的这些词有:
    make sure(确保)、make up one’s mind(下决心)、keep in mind(牢记)
  4. 可运用形式宾语it代替的宾语从句
    ①动词find,feel,consider,make,believe,think等后面有宾语补足语的时候,则需要用it做形式宾语而将that宾语从句后置。
  5. ②有些动词带宾语从句时需要在宾语与从句前加it(双宾语)这类动词主要有:hate,take,owe,have,see to.award,lend.hand,mail,offer,pass,pay,post,read,return,show,teach,tell

介宾从句

  1. 用whether之类的介词宾语从句。
  2. 用that,if引导的介词宾语从句,有时候except,but,besides三个介词后可见到that引导的宾语从句。

形容+宾从句

有些形容词具有动词的含义,所以也可以带一个宾语从句;
例句:
  1. I am sorry I am late.
  2. I am glad that you can join us.
  3. Are you sure his answer is right?
常用来引导宾语从句的形容词有:sure,certain,glad,please,happy,sorry,afraid,satisfied,surprised

if与whether

  1. if和whether在作“是否”理解时,引导宾语从句常放在动词know,ask,care,wonder,find out等之后,介词后一般不用if。
  2. 少数动词,如:leave,put,discuss,doubt后的宾语从句常用whether。
  3. whether后可以加or not,但是if不可以。
  4. 不定式前只能用whether。
  5. 一般“no matter”后表示“是否”用whether而不用if。

不省略引导词

存在以下情况时引导词that不可省略:
  1. that作learn,suggest,explain,agree,wonder,prove,mean,state,feel,hold等动词的宾语。
  2. 宾语从句较长。
  3. 主语状语置于主句尾,宾语从句之前。
  4. 主语谓语动词(包括非谓语动词)与宾语从句之间有插入语
  5. 一个动词带有两个或两个以上宾语从句时,第一个that可以省略,第二个that不可以省略。
  6. 宾语从句中的主语是this,that或those,these做主语的定语。
  7. 宾语从句是双宾语中的直接宾语
  8. 宾语从句的主语是非谓语动词主语从句
  9. 主语中的谓语动词是固定词组
  10. 宾语从句有it做其先行词
  11. 直接引语中,转述分句把宾语从句隔开。
  12. that在从句中充当主语。

否定转移

学习图片 学习图片
主句的谓语动词是think,believe,imagine,suppose,consider,expect,fancy,guess等,并且主句的主语第一人称而且为一般现在时,从句的否定词一般要转移到主句上来,其反义疑问句一般与宾语从句一致.
如果宾语从句中有某个含有否定意义的形容词或副词,其反义疑问句要用肯定形式.我们通常称为否定前移。

时态和语序

当主句为现在时或将来时,宾语从句的时态一般不受主句的时态所影响.
当主句为过去时
①从句用一般过去时过去进行时表示与主句谓语动词动作同时发生
②从句过去完成时表示该动作发生在主句谓语动作之前
③从句谓语用过去将来时表示该动作发生在主句谓语动作之后
④如果从句是一个客观真理,那么从句的时态不根据主句的时态而变化
⑤当宾语从句的引导词是who,which,what,when,where,how,why等表疑问时,不能按正常语序安排,经常将这类引导词置于句首
  1. 无论任何时候都为陈述语序.但也有部分口语提问例外 E.G:What's the matter?What's wrong with you?[2]

版本二 编辑

学习宾语从句要抓住三要素:引导词、语序和时态。
一、引导词
1.从句为陈述句,常选择引导词that或将that省略,直接与主句相连。
2.从句为一般疑问句,常选择引导词if或whether。在 whether … or not 结构中不能用 if 替换。
3.从句为特殊疑问句,常选择what,when,where,which,who,how等疑问代词、疑问副词作引导词。 注意:当who为主语时,句式为:who+谓语+其他。
  1. 从句的引导词有很多,如:say, think, wish , hope, see, believe, agree, expect, hear , feel等。
二、判断时态情况
1.主句是一般现在时,从句为各种时态。
2.主句是一般过去时,从句为各种相应过去时态。 注意:从句描绘客观事实,用一般现在时。
3.关系代词:that,who,whom,whose,which
: 1. The teacher told the children that the sun____ round.
  1. was B. is C. were D. are
2. I believe that our team____ the basketball match.
  1. win B. won C. will win D. wins
答:1.B 2.C
宾语从句用作宾语。如:
Do you know where he lives ?
定语从句相当于一个形容词,用于修饰前面的名词。如:
The student who answered the question was John. 回答问题的学生是John.
This is the man whom he is looking for.
三、宾语从句的用法
1.that引导宾语从句无意义,不充当句子成分常省略。但下列情况除外:
①.介词宾语从句的that不能省略。
②. and连接的两个从句,两个从句的that不能省略。
He told me that he had two sons and that they both had gone to college.
③.在动词+it+宾语补足语+宾语从句结构中,that不省略。
I heard it said that he had gone abroad
We found it impossible that he could finish it in such a short time
  1. Whether,if 引导宾语从句:两词可互换,但是下列情形除外:
①.whether从句中有or not
②.whether从句做介词宾语
Everything depends on whether you agree with us
3.许多带复合宾语的句子,宾语从句经常移到句子后部,而用it做形式宾语。结构是:
主语 + 动词 + it + 形容词/名词等宾语补足语 + 宾语从句
We think it wrong that he told a lie to everyone.
①.宾语从句的语序要用陈述句语序。
False: He is wondering when can he finish this difficult job.
Right: He is wondering when he can finish this difficult job.
②. 有时候可以用it 作形式宾语,而把真正的宾语从句放在后面。
Bad: I thought that he could finish this job in just two hours impossible.
Good: I thought it impossible that he could finish this job in just two hours.
③. 带有宾语从句的复合句的否定形式一般是否定主句。
Bad: I think he doesn’t like the English teacher.
Good: I don’t think he likes the English teacher.
④. 主句一般过去时态,从句也要用过去时态;具体细节请看第一部分。
False: He wanted to know why he is crying in the corner.
Right: He wanted to know why he was crying in the corner.

版本三 编辑

宾语从句,在复合句中,位于及物动词后。
eg.
Tell him which class you are in .
Do you know what he likes?
注:
主句谓语过去时,从句相应过去时;
He answered that he was listening to me.
主句谓语现在时,从句时态任所需;
eg. He says (that) he will leave a message on my desk.
They know (that) he is working hard.
具体过去永不变,真理格言现在时;
eg.He told me that he was born in 1980.
Father told me that practice makes perfect .
(2)完成反意问句
在think / believe / suppose / guess / imagine / expect等动词后跟宾语从句否定式时,应转移到主句上去,完成反意问句时,应与从句主、谓保持一致。(注: 否定前移的条件是,主句主语第一人称
eg. I don't think you are right,are you
I don't believe they have finished their work yet,have they
(3)运用虚拟语气
在表示:
建议 suggest 、advise、propose;
要求demand 、desire、request;
决定 decide;
命令 order、command、require;
坚决主张 insist;
等动词后跟宾语从句,用(should)+v.(虚拟语气
eg. I suggested that you(should)study hard.
He ordered that we should go out at once.
(4)宾语从句后置
如果宾语从句后有宾语补语,用it作形式宾语,把宾语从句后置
eg.You may think it strange that he would live there.
(5)that不可省略
宾语从句that常可省略,但在以下情况下不能省略
A.当主句谓语动词带有两个或两个以上宾语从句时,可以省略第一个that,其他不能省略。
eg.I believe(that)you have done your best and that things will get better.
B.当it作形式宾语
eg.She made it clear that she had nothing to do with him.
C.当宾语从句前置时
eg.That our team will win,I believe.

版本四 编辑

一、定义和例句分析
宾语从句就是一个句子作动词或介词的宾语。
A 作动词的宾语:
I heard the news.
主语谓语动词名词作宾语
I heard that he would come here later on.
主语谓语动词一个句子作宾语---宾语从句
B 作介词的宾语:
He said nothing about the plan.
主语谓语动词代词作动词的宾语介词名词作介词的宾语
He said nothing about who broke the window last night.
主语谓语动词代词作动词的宾语介词 一个句子作介词的宾语
  1. 二、复合句的构成
带有宾语从句的复合句就是用连接词把一个主句和一个宾语从句连接在一起。连接词有:that(可省略),what,who,when,where,why,which,if,whether,how.
1 He suggested (that) we should clean the corridor every day.
宾语
2 He told me (that) he would leave Dalian airport at 8pm.
间接宾语直接宾语
3 He told me where he was going to travel that summer.
间接宾语直接宾语
4 if (whether) Tom could play basketball with him that morning.
how she managed to solve the problem.
why water flows from a high position to a lower position.
在例子4中,当主句是过去时态时(一般过去时过去进行时,过去将来时,过去完成时),从句根据不同情况必须使用过去时态的一种,(大自然的现象和真理除外)。
5 if (whether) I have passed the exam.
how my cat escaped from the room last night.
在例子5中,当主语是现在时态时(一般现在时现在进行时一般将来时现在完成时),从句可根据不同情况使用各种时态。
  1. 三、注意
A 宾语从句必须用陈述语序。但也有部分口语提问以疑问代词作主语
False: He is wondering when can he finish this difficult job.
Right: He is wondering when he can finish this difficult job.
B 有时候可以用it 作形式宾语,而把真正的宾语从句放在后面。
Bad: I thought that he could finish this job in just two hours impossible.
Good: I thought it impossible that he could finish this job in just two hours.
Bad: He left whether we should continue this project to my judgment.
Good: He left it to my judgment whether we should continue this project.
C 带有宾语从句的复合句的否定形式一般是否定主句。
Bad: I think he doesn’t like the English teacher.
Good: I don’t think he likes the English teacher.
D 主句一般过去时态,从句也要用过去时态;具体细节请看第一部分。
False: He wanted to know why he is crying in the corner.
Right: He wanted to know why he was crying in the corner.
宾语从句的点点滴滴 宾语从句是英语复合句中的其中非常重要的从句之一。它是用一个句子做另一个句子的宾语,将这个句子叫做宾语从句。宾语从句做介词及物动词的宾语。现在从下列三个方面总结归纳如下:
一,引导词
A,由that 引导的陈述句性的宾语从句,在很多动词如say,think,wish,hope,see,believe,agree,expect,hear,feel等动词后。连词that只起连接作用,在从句中不做句子的成分,也无词汇意义,在口语中常被省略,但在大多数情况下还是以不省为好,特别是在笔语中。
例:I told him that he was wrong.
在think,believe,suppose,expect等动词引起的宾语从句中,有时谓语尽管是否定意义,却不用否定形式,而将think 等动词变为否定形式。
例:I don’t think you are right. (我认为你做的不对)
在许多带有复合宾语的句子中,that引导的宾语从句经常移到句子的后面,而用it做形式宾语。
例:We think it wrong that he told a lie to everyone (我认为他向每一个人撒谎是错误的)
B,由连词if、 whether 引导的表示“是否…”的宾语从句。Whether,if 在从句中不做句子的成分,一般情况下,whether和if 可以替换。
例:I don’t know if/whether he will come tomorrow.
The teacher asked if/whether we had finished the experiment.
在介词后面的宾语从句中不用if引导
例:Everything depends on whether we have enough money。
l宾语从句中有or not时不用if引导.
例:I don’t know whether the movie star will come or not.
不定式连用作宾语时不用if引导.
例:Whether to go there or not hasn’t been decided.
C,由wh-引导的宾语从句。连接代词who,whom,whose,what,which,和连接副词when,where,why,how 等连接的宾语从句,它们在句中即有连接从句的作用,又在句中充当句子的成分。
例:Do you know which film they are talking about? (which做定语)
I don’t know where he lives. (where 做地点状语)
二,宾语从句的语序,
宾语从句从句的语序必须是陈述语序,即连接词+主语+谓语+其他成分
例:I believe that they will come soon.
He asked me whether I was a teacher.
They wanted to know what they can do for us.
二,宾语从句的时态。
宾语从句的时态受主句的限制,
既:主句是一般现在时态,从句根据实际情况而定。
主句是一般过去时态,从句用相应的过去的时态。如果从句的动作发生在主句之前,则从句要用过去完成时态。
例:
  1. She says that she is a student.
She said that she was a student.
  1. She says that she will fly to Japan in a week.
She said that she would fly to Japan in a week..
如果宾语从句说的是客观真理、自然现象或事实时,这时宾语从句要用一般现在时态
例:The teacher said that the earth goes round the sun.
He told me that Japan is an island country.
Could you tell me…是用来征询对方的意见,语气委婉,并不表示过去。
例:Could you tell me when we will visit the Histury Museum
注意事项:
陈述句变成宾语从句时,要注意人称的变化。
例:She said: “I have been to England before.”
She said that she had been to England before.
宾语从句与简单句的交换。
由连接代词和连接副词引导的宾语从句,如果宾语从句的主语和主句的主语是同一个人时,可以用“疑问词+不定式
”做宾语的简单句结构。
例:I don’t know what I should do next.
I don’t know what to do next.
DO SOME EXERCISES:
1.Can you see________
  1. what he’s reading B. what is he reading
  2. what does he read D. he reads what
2.Does Jack come from Japan? Do you know?(合并成一个句子)
Do you know_____Jack _____from Japan
what was the matter D. what the matter was
The keys: 1 A.2 if,comes

宾语从句定义 编辑

置于动词、介词等词性后面起宾语作用的从句叫宾语从句。宾语从句的语序必须是陈述语序。谓语动词、介词、动词不定式,v.-ing形式后面都能带宾语从句。有些形容词(afraid,sure,glad等)之后也可以带宾语从句。

引导词的用法 编辑

在复合句中作主句的宾语,引导词有:
连词:that (that 常可省略),whether, if
代词:who, whose, what ,which
副词:when ,where, how, why 等。
that引导的宾语从句
可跟that从句做宾语的动词有:
say, think, insist, wish, hope, demand, imagine, wonder, know, suppose, see, believe, agree, admit, deny, expect, explain, order, command, feel, dream, suggest, hear, mean, notice, prefer, request, require, propose, declare, report等。
例句:The boy believes that he will travel through space to other planets.
注意事项:当主句谓语动词是 think, believe, suppose, expect 等词,而宾语从句的意思是否定时,常把否定转移至主句表示。
例句:I don’t think it is right for him to treat you like that.
在以下情况中不能省略
当句中的动词后接多于两个由that引导的宾语从句时,第一个that可省,但后面的that不可省。
  1. 例句:He said (that) you were too young to understand the matter and that he was asked not to tell you.
  2. 当主句的谓语动词与that宾语从句之间有插入语时,that一般不可省。
      例句:Just then I noticed, for the first time, that our master was wearing his fine green coat and his black silk cap.
  3. 当that从句是双宾语中的直接宾语时,that不可省。
      例句:I can’t tell him that his mother died.
注意事项:许多带复合宾语的句子,that引导的宾语从句经常移到句子后部,而用it作形式宾语。
例句:I find it necessary that we should do the homework on time.
由whether,if 引导的宾语从句
由whether(if)引导的宾语从句,实际上是一般疑问句演变而来的。意思是“是否”。宾语从句要用陈述句语序。一般说来,在宾语从句中whether与if可以互换使用,但在特殊情况下if与whether是不能互换的。
例句:I wonder whether(if) they will come to our party.
只能用whether不能用if引导的宾语从句
  1. 在带to的不定式前
      例句:We decided whether to walk there.
  2. 在介词的后面
      例句:I’m thinking of whether we should go to see the film.
  3. 在动词后面的宾语从句时
      例句:We discussed whether we had a sports meeting next week
  4. 直接与or not连用时
      例句:I can’t say whether or not theycan come on time.
只能用if不能用whether引导的宾语从句
if引导否定概念的宾语从句时
  例句:He asked if I didn’t come to school yesterday.
连接代词和连接副词引导的宾语从句
这样的宾语从句实际上是由特殊疑问句变化而来的,宾语从句要用陈述句语序。用于这种结构的动词常常是:see, say, tell, ask, answer, know, decide, show, find out, imagine, suggest, doubt, wonder, discover, understand, inform, advise等。
英语中的连接代词有:who,whom,whose,which,what,在句中担任主语、宾语、定语或者表语。
例句:Can you tell me whom you are waiting for?
英语中的连接副词有:when,where,why,how,在句中担任状语的成分。
例句:None of us knows where these new parts can be bought.

宾语从句语序 编辑

宾语从句的语序是陈述句语序即:连接代词/副词+主语+谓语+其他成分。即:连接代词/副词+陈述句语序。例句如下:
  1. I don’t know what they are looking for.
  2. Could you tell me when the train will leave?
  3. Can you imagine what kind of man he is?

宾语从句时态 编辑

  1. 主句是一般现在时,从句根据实际情况使用任何时态。
      例句:The headmaster hopes everything goes well.
  2. 主句是过去时态,从句须用过去时态的某种形式。
      例句:She was sorry that she hadn’t finished her work on time.
  3. 当宾语从句表示的是一个客观真理或者事实时,即使主句是过去时,从句也用一般现在时态。
      例句:The teacher told his class that light travels faster than sound.[2]

宾语从句特点 编辑

  1. 宾语从句可以作及物动词、介词及形容词的宾语。
  2. 宾语从句的语序一律用陈述句语序。
  3. 连接词that引导宾语从句在句中无词义,不充当句子成份,多数情况下可以省略。
  4. whether 和 if 都可引导宾语从句,但 whether后可紧跟or not;whether从句可作介词的宾语。
  5. 如果从句太长,可以用形式宾语it. 补充宾语从句在句子中起宾语作用的从句叫做宾语从句.宾语从句分为三类:
    (1)动词的宾语从句,介词的宾语从句和形容词的宾语从句.时态:1·主句用一般现在时,从句可用任意时。 2·主句用过去时,从句用过去某个时态。 3·主句用过去时,从句是真理时,只用一般现在时。
    (2)宾语从句的连接词从属连词连接宾语从句的从属连词主要有that,if,whether.that引导表示陈述句的宾语从句,而if和whether引导表示“是否”的宾语从句.
    He told that he would go to the college the next year他告诉我他下一年上大学.
    I don’t know if there will be a bus any more.我不知道是否还会有公交车.
    Nobody knew whether he could pass the exam.没人知道他是否会通过考试.
    连接代词连接代词主要有who, whom ,whose ,what ,whoever ,whomever ,whosever, whatever, whichever等.连接代词一般指疑问,但what, whatever除了指疑问外,也可以指陈述.
    Do you know who has won Red Alert game?你知道谁赢了这一局红警游戏吗?
    I don’t know whom you should depend on.我不知道你该依靠谁.
    The book will show you what the best CEOs know.这本书会告诉你最好的执行总裁该了解些什么.
    Have you determined whichever you should buy,a Motorola or Nokia cell phone?你决定好是买诺基亚还是摩托罗拉的电话了吗?
    连接副词连接副词主要有when,where,why,how,whenever,wherever,however等.
    He didn’t tell me when we should meet again.他没有告诉我什么时候我们能再见面.
    Could you please tell me how you read the new panel?你能展示给我怎么用这个新的操作盘吗?
    None of us knows where these new parts can be bought.没有人知道这些的新的零件能在哪里买到.
    (3)动词的宾语从句大多数动词都可以带宾语从句
    We all expect that they will win , for members of their team are stronger.我们都预料他们会赢,因为他们的队员更强壮.
    He told us that they would help us though the whole work.他告诉我们在整个工作中,他都会帮忙的.
    部分“动词+副词”结构也可以带宾语从句
    I have found out that all the tickets for the concert have been sold out.我发现这场音乐会的所有票都卖光了.
    Can you work out how much we will spend during the trip?你能计算出这次旅行我们将花费多少钱吗?
    动词短语也可以带宾语从句常见的这些词有:make sure确保 make up one’s mind下决心 keep in mind牢记
    Make sure that there are no mistakes in your papers before you turn them in.在上交试卷前确保没有任何错误.
  6. 可运用形式宾语it代替的宾语从句
    ①动词find,feel,consider,make,believe等后面有宾语补足语的时候,则需要用it做形式宾语而将that宾语从句后置.
    I think it necessary that we take plenty of hot water every day .我认为每天多喝开水是有必要的.
    I feel it a pity that I haven’t been to the get-together.我没去聚会,感觉非常遗憾.
    I have made it a rule that I keep diaries. 我每天写日记成了习惯.
    We all find it important that we (should) make a quick decision about this mater. 我们都认为对这件事马上做出决定很重要.
    ②有些动词带宾语从句时寻要在宾语与从句前加it这类动词主要有:hate, take , owe, have, see to.
    I hate it when they with their mouths full of food.我讨厌他们满嘴食物时说话.
    He will have it that our plan is really practical.他会认为我们的计划确实可行.
    We take it that you will agree with us.我们认为你会同意我们的.
    When you start the engine, you must see to it that car is in neutral.开启发动机时, 一定要使汽车的离合器处于空挡位置.
    ③若宾语从句是wh-类,则不可用it代替
    We all consider what you said to be unbelievable.我们都认为你所说的是不可信的.
    We discovered what we had learned to be valuable.我们发现我们所学到的东西都是有用的.
    3.介词的宾语从句用wh-类的介词宾语从句
    We are talking about whether we admit students into our club.我们正在讨论是否让学生加入我们的俱乐部.
    The new book is about how Shenzhou 6 manned spaceship was sent up into space.这本新书是关于神州6号载人航天飞船是如何升如太空的.
    用that,if引导的介词宾语从句有时候except,but,besides三个介词后可见到that引导的宾语从句
    I know nothing about my new neighbor except that he used to work with a company.对于我的新邻居我只知道他曾在一家公司上班,其他一无所知.
    4.形容词的宾语从句常用来引导宾语从句的形容词有: sure,certain,glad,please,happy,sorry,afraid,satisfied,surprisedI am sure
    I will pass the exam.我确信我会通过考试.
    I am sorry that I have troubled you so long.很抱歉我这么长时间在打扰你.
    He is glad that Li Ming went to see him when he was ill.他很高兴在他生病的时候李明能去看望他.
    5.if,whether在宾语从句中的区别
    ①if和whether在作“是否”解时,引导宾语从句常放在动词know,ask,care,wonder,find out等之后,介词后一般不用it
    ②少数动词,如:leave,put,discuss,doubt后的宾语从句常用whether.
    ③whether后可以加or not,但是if不可以.
    ④在不定式前只能用whether.如: I can’t decide whether to stay. 我不能决定是否留下。
    ⑤避免歧异时,我们常用whether而不用if.
    6.哪些宾语从句不可以省略引导词that当that作learn,suggest,explain,agree,wonder,prove,mean,state,feel,hold等动词的宾语时;当宾语从句较长时;当主语状语置于主句尾,宾语从句之前时;当主语谓语动词(包括非谓语动词)与宾语从句之间有插入语时;当一个动词带有两个或两个以上宾语从句时,此时第一个that可以省略,第二个that不可以省略;当宾语从句中的主语是this,that或this,that做主语的定语时;当宾语从句是双宾语中的直接宾语时;当宾语从句的主语是非谓语动词或主语从句时;当主语中的谓语动词是固定词组时;当宾语从句有it做其先行词时;在直接引语中,转述分句把宾语从句隔开时
    7.宾语从句的否定转移主句的谓语动词是think,believe,imagine,suppose,consider,espect,fancy,guess等,并且主句的主语是第一人称而且为一般现在时,从句的否定词一般要转移到主句上来,其反义疑问句一般与宾语从句一致.
    I don’t think he will come to my party.而不能说成I think he won’t come to my party.我认为他不会来我的舞会.
    I don’t believe that man is killed by Jim,is he?我认为那个人不是Jim所杀的,是不是?如果宾语从句中有某个含有否定意义的形容词或副词,其反义疑问句要用肯定形式.
    We find that he never listens to the teacher carefully,does he?我们发现他从来不仔细听老师讲课,是不是?
    8.宾语从句的时态和语序当主句为现在时或将来时的时候,宾语从句的时态一般不受主句的时态所影响.当主句为过去时的时候
    ①从句用一般过去时或过去进行时表示与主句谓语动词动作同时发生
    I only knew he was studying in a western country,but I didn’t know what country he was in.我只知道他当时在西方的一个国家读书,可不知道是哪个国家.
    He asked me if I was reading the story The Old Man and the Sea when he was in.他问我他进来的时候我是否正在读<老人与海>.
    ②从句过去完成时表示该动作发生在主句谓语动作之前
    He told me that he had told Mary about the meeting already.他告诉我他已经把有关会议的事情告诉的了Mary.
    ③从句谓语用过去将来时表示该动作发生在主句谓语动作之后
    The reporter asked if the government would take necessary measures to put down the to-do.记者问政府是否会采取必要的措施镇压骚乱.
    如果从句是一个客观真理,那么从句的时候不根据主句的时态而变化
    The teacher said that the moon goes around the earth yesterday.老师昨天说月亮绕着地球转.
    当宾语从句的引导词是who,which,what,when,where,how,why等表疑问时,不能按正常语序安排,经常将这类引导词置于句首
    Who do you think the public might choose as their favorite singer this year?你认为今年公众会选谁为他们最喜欢的歌手
    宾语从句,即:在主句中担当宾语的从句。学习宾语从句要抓住三要素:连接词、语序和时态。 连接词一般都是that(指事务或人),which(指事),who(指人)
    1.从句为陈述句,常选择连接词that或将that省略,直接与主句相连。
    2.从句为一般疑问句,常选择连接词if或whether。在whether…ornot结构中不能用if替换。
    3.从句为特殊疑问句,常选择what,when,where,which,who,how等的疑问代、副词作连接词。
    注意:当who为主语时,句式为:who+谓语+其他三:判断时态情况:
    1。主句是一般现在时,从句为各种时态情况
    2。主句是一般过去时,从句为各种相应过去时态注意:从句描绘客观事实,用一般现在时
    1. The teacher told the children that the sun____ round. 【A. was B. is C. were D. are】
    2. I believe that our team____ the basketball match.【 A. win B. won C. will win D. wins 】
    3. I don’t know____ to visit the old man. 【A. whether B. if C. that D. who】 The soldiers soon reached( )was once an old temple( )the villagers used as a school. 【A.which;where B.what;which C.where;which D.what;where】
    答:选B,动词reach后接宾语从句,从句缺少宾语,where不可,which引导宾语从句时表疑问含义“哪一个…”而此句中并非疑问含义,不知道哪一座庙宇,而是用what从句表陈述含义,意“过去的一座旧庙宇”;temple后为对其修饰的定语从句,用关系代词which代替,并在从句中作动词used的宾语,use sth. as…“把…用作…whether + or not 宾语从句,在复合句中作宾语,位于及物动词后;
    eg. Tell him which class you are in . Do you know what he likes?
    注:(1)主、从句时态一致: 主句谓语过去时,从句相应过去时; He answered that he was listening to me. 主句谓语现在时,从句时态任所需;
    eg. He says (that) he will leave a message on my desk. They know (that) he is working hard. 具体过去永不变,真理格言现在时;
    eg. He told me that he was born in 1980. Father told me that practice makes perfect .
    (2)否定前移,及完成反意问句; 在think / believe / suppose / guess / imagine / expect等动词后跟宾语从句否定式时,应转移到主句上去,完成反意问句时,应与从句主、谓保持一致。(注: 否定前移的条件是,主句主语是第一人称)
    eg. I don't think you are right ,are you ? I don't believe they have finished their work yet,have they ?
    (3)在表示建议 suggest , advise 要求demand 、desire、require、request、propose; 决定 decide; 命令 order、command; 坚决主张 insist; 等动词后跟宾语从句,用(should)+v.(虚拟语气)
    eg. I suggested that you(should)study hard. He ordered that we should go out at once.
    (4)如果宾语从句后有宾语补语,用it作形式宾语,把宾语从句后置
    eg.You may think it strange that he would live there.
    (5)宾语从句that常可省略,但在以下情况下不能省略
    A.当主句谓语动词带有两个或两个以上宾语从句时,可以省略第一个that,其他不能省略。
    eg.I believe(that)you have done your best and that things will get bet?.
    B.当it作形式宾语时
    eg.She made it clear that she had nothing to do with him.
    C.当宾语从句前置时
    eg.That our team will win,I believe.
参考资料
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